History of fluorite

Fluorine Fmost reactive chemical element and the lightest member of the halogen elementsor Group 17 Group VIIa of the periodic table. Its chemical activity can be attributed to its extreme ability to attract electrons it is the most electronegative element and to the small size of its atoms.

The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar or fluorite was described in by the German physician and mineralogist Georgius Agricola. It appears likely that crude hydrofluoric acid was first prepared by an unknown English glassworker in In the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele obtained hydrofluoric acid in an impure state by heating fluorspar with concentrated sulfuric acid in a glass retort, which was greatly corroded by the product; as a result, vessels made of metal were used in subsequent experiments with the substance.

Fluorspar was then recognized to be calcium fluoride.

A Natural History of Fluoride

The isolation of fluorine was for a long time one of the chief unsolved problems in inorganic chemistryand it was not until that the French chemist Henri Moissan prepared the element by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in hydrogen fluoride. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for isolating fluorine. The difficulty in handling the element and its toxic properties contributed to the slow progress in fluorine chemistry.

Indeed, up to the time of World War II the element appeared to be a laboratory curiosity. Then, however, the use of uranium hexafluoride in the separation of uranium isotopesalong with the development of organic fluorine compounds of industrial importance, made fluorine an industrial chemical of considerable use.

The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar fluoriteCaF 2 has been used for centuries as a flux cleansing agent in various metallurgical processes. The colourless, transparent crystals of fluorspar exhibit a bluish tinge when illuminatedand this property is accordingly known as fluorescence. Fluorine is found in nature only in the form of its chemical compoundsexcept for trace amounts of the free element in fluorspar that has been subjected to radiation from radium.

Not a rare element, it makes up about 0. The principal fluorine-containing minerals are 1 fluorspar, deposits of which occur in Illinois, Kentucky, Derbyshire, southern Germany, the south of France, and Russia and the chief source of fluorine, 2 cryolite Na 3 AlF 6chiefly from Greenland, 3 fluoroapatite Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 [F,Cl]widely distributed and containing variable amounts of fluorine and chlorine4 topaz Al 2 SiO 4 [F,OH] 2the gemstoneand 5 lepidolitea mica as well as a component of animal bones and teeth.

At room temperature fluorine is a faintly yellow gas with an irritating odour. Inhalation of the gas is dangerous. Upon cooling fluorine becomes a yellow liquid. There is only one stable isotope of the element, fluorine Because fluorine is the most electronegative of the elements, atomic groupings rich in fluorine are often negatively charged. Fluorine is the most powerfully oxidizing element.

No other substance, therefore, is able to oxidize the fluoride anion to the free element, and for this reason the element is not found in the free state in nature.

For more than years, all chemical methods had failed to produce the element, success having been achieved only by the use of electrolytic methods. However, in American chemist Karl O.Fluorite gemstones have been cherished since Ancient times. These lovely translucent calcium fluoride crystals have withstood the test of time.

They are highly sought-after by people who utilize and appreciate them for their mesmerizing beauty and all of the fluorite benefits at the heart of fluorite meaning. The earliest known fluorite crystals date back thousands of years to Ancient Egypt.

Fluorite Meaning

The Egyptians loved these translucent calcium fluoride crystals for their beauty and for how easy it was to carve them. They often carved fluorite stone into statues, scarabs and vases. They were also carved into amulets, bowls, cups, dishes, statues and vases by American Indians, Britons, Celts, French, Germans and the Romans. Goblets and cups made from fluorite stone were believed by the Romans to help prevent intoxication when they drank alcohol from them. They also believed the fluorite rock drinking vessels would impart a particular flavor to wine.

It was apparently so coveted that Ancient Roman rulers were driven to steal it. Fluorite mineral rock is mined in areas all over the world, which explains why it is found in archaeological digs almost everywhere. These fluorite stone artifacts belonged to Native Americans in the Mississippi Valley. Fluorite crystals of various fluorite colors were fashioned into jewelry and figurines that were 9 to 12 inches tall.

Fluorite is more commonly used by mineralogists and gemologists. The Clement Mineral Museum located in Marion, Kentucky holds the biggest fluorite collection in the world.

This exquisite translucent calcium fluoride crystal help people achieve their best possible aptitude, a fluorite benefit that goes back to fluorite crystal meaning. Its vibrations expand the consciousness and help both brain hemispheres work together, increasing comprehension and retention of new knowledge.

This increase in brain activity and ability to learn go back to the balance and harmony at the heart of fluorite meaning. Fluorite stone meaning is all about balance and near perfection. Fluorite meaning is strongly connected to its own nearly perfect beauty and its magical essence. These translucent calcium fluoride crystal have a soft yet glassy appearance, regardless of the fluorite color.

The color, which is usually blue, green, purple, clear, rainbow or yellow, can be startlingly vibrant yet soft and calming, which is a big part of fluorite meaning.Fluoritealso called fluorsparcommon halide mineral, calcium fluoride CaF 2which is the principal fluorine mineral.

It is usually quite pure, but as much as 20 percent yttrium or cerium may replace calcium. Fluorite occurs most commonly as a glassy, many-hued vein mineral and is often associated with lead and silver ores; it also occurs in cavities, in sedimentary rocks, in pegmatites, and in hot-spring areas.

Fluorite is used as a flux in the manufacture of open-hearth steelof aluminum fluoride, of artificial cryoliteand of aluminum. It is used in opalescent glassin iron and steel enamelware, in the production of hydrofluoric acid, in the refining of lead and antimonyand in the manufacture of high-octane fuels as a catalyst. Because of its low index of refraction and low dispersion, clear colourless fluorite of optical quality is used for apochromatic lenses. At one time blue john, a variety from DerbyshireEnglandwas widely used in ornamental vases and other objects.

For detailed physical properties, see halide mineral table. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Fluorite mineral. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. In fluorite, calcium cations are positioned at the corners and face centres of cubic unit cells. A unit cell is the smallest group of atoms, ions, or molecules from which the entire crystal structure can be generated by its repetition.

Each fluorine anion…. It is still so used, in quantities larger than before, because the processes that are coming into greatest use for making steel, the basic oxygen process and the electric furnace,….

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Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About.Fluorite also called fluorspar is the mineral form of calcium fluorideCaF 2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habitalthough octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. The Mohs scale of mineral hardnessbased on scratch hardness comparisondefines value 4 as Fluorite.

Pure fluorite is transparent, both in visible and ultraviolet light, but impurities usually make it a colorful mineral and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals.

Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersionso lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberrationmaking them valuable in microscopes and telescopes.

history of fluorite

Fluorite optics are also usable in the far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared ranges, where conventional glasses are too absorbent for use. The word fluorite is derived from the Latin verb flueremeaning to flow.

The mineral is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags. The term flux comes from the Latin adjective fluxusmeaning flowing, loose, slack. The mineral fluorite was originally termed fluorospar and was first discussed in print in a work Bermannvs sive de re metallica dialogus [Bermannus; or a dialogue about the nature of metals], by Georgius Agricolaas a mineral noted for its usefulness as a flux.

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Influorite gave its name to the phenomenon of fluorescencewhich is prominent in fluorites from certain locations, due to certain impurities in the crystal. Fluorite also gave the name to its constitutive element fluorine.

history of fluorite

In the context of archeology, gemmology, classical studies, and egyptology, the Latin terms murrina and myrrhina refer to fluorite.

Fluorite crystallizes in a cubic motif. Crystal twinning is common and adds complexity to the observed crystal habits. Fluorite has four perfect cleavage planes that help produce octahedral fragments.

history of fluorite

The structural motif adopted by fluorite is so common that the motif is called the fluorite structure. Element substitution for the calcium cation often includes certain rare earth elements REEsuch as yttrium and cerium. Iron, sodium, and barium are also common impurities. Some fluoride anions may be replaced by the chloride anion. Fluorite is a widely occurring mineral with significant deposits in over 9, areas globally.

It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common minor constituent of dolomite and limestone.Fluorite crystal carries in its wonderfully intricate designs the spiritual qualities of symmetry, beauty, lucid dreams, and even genius. Throughout history, Fluorite has been one of the most prized of all crystals and, to this day, remains one of the most sought after stones due to its rarity, unbelievable colors, and designs.

By using this crystal, whether in meditation, on your body, or resting on your altar, it will usher in new dimensions of beauty and harmony in your life in a way that few have ever experienced. They remind us that every star and galaxy has a place in its grand design. We, too, have our special place in the universe. By using Fluorite, we can begin to place ourselves within the grand play that we are all a part of. Just as each one of us comes in a different design, so too does Fluorite.

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This crystal comes in no fewer than seven different colors depending on the chemical makeup of the quarry and surroundings in which it was formed. In ancient Rome, Fluorite was one of the most prized crystals of the Ceasars due to its complex designs. Its fragility and breathtaking beauty made it a symbol of ultimate wealth within their culture, and only the finest of wines would be drunk from its cup.

Although today it is not recommended to use Fluorite as a drinking container, marveling at its beauty helps bring the wonder of the natural world back into your life. Likewise, the ancient Chinese also held Fluorite in high regard, both for its beauty but also for its ability to bring about vivid, lucid dreams. By placing this crystal near your bed not under your pillowits energy will emanate into the dreamworld and cause you to have beautiful dreams in a way you have never experienced.

Though this practice takes time to perfect, Fluorite can become an excellent guide to lead you through the dreamworld. Visions and characters become more colorful and vivid. Lastly, Fluorite also represents spiritual genius and is known as the Genius Stone for its ability to conjure up profound thoughts of the greatest complexity and wonder.

It is said that Fluorite activates both sides of your brain — or hemispheres — and allows your brain to function at full capacity, in perfect harmony.

With this ability, you may access ideas that have remained trapped inside your mind, unable to escape. Creativity and ingenuity can flourish by merely focusing on this beautiful stone. Sometimes it can be a colorless crystal, but other times it can also be purple, blue, green, yellow, or pink, or other combinations of these colors. It is sometimes called fluorspar. It has a soft and glassy appearance that is often very vibrant.

On a psychic level, it is a very protective crystal. It is actually pretty similar to the benefits of using Howlite. It will help you know when there are external forces trying to control or manipulate you. And it can effectively shut down any kind of mental or psychic manipulation.

This is a particularly useful crystal to have at work when hostile or opposing forces surround you. Fluorite can get rid of any electromagnetic fog that can attract or retain negative energies and make you feel psychically, emotionally, or mentally lethargic. It can bring you calmness and relaxation, and it can relieve all your tensions and anxieties. Just like the Desert Rosethe energies of this crystal can help you become a more organized person.

It can help you have more structure in your everyday life, making you physically, emotionally, and mentally prepared to overcome both small and big challenges. This crystal can help you declutter and get rid of the things, or even people, that are no longer healthy for you. Similar to Green varieties of Calciteit has the ability to increase your intuition. It can increase your sense of confidence and strengthen your know-hows when it comes to life.

A calm and comforting energy will fill you that will make you more confident about your prospects. You will easily form strong and healthy connections with the help of this crystal! And it can enhance creative thoughts and foster clear communications. It will promote psychic wholeness and spiritual development. With the help of this amazing crystal, you can enjoy mental clarity that will give you a balanced view of life.What about fluorite?

The book "Valzergues fluorite mine" E. Guillou-Gotkovsky Comments How to get the book. Fluorite mining. Other mines.

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Foreign mines. Gilles Emringer, collector. Fluorite collections. Building a collection. Falses and diverses. I'm looking for Web site synopsis.

history of fluorite

Fluorite is the most important natural fluoride. It can be found in many veins that are often associated to granitic rocks. Due to its richness and its colors, the fluorite has always been fascinating for the man. This mineral received several names Spatum vitreum, Calx fluorata The commercial and industrial word is fluorspar spathfluor in French Its crystallographic structure, very simple, was determined by William H.

This was done by x-rays diffraction. Morphology : cubical, octahedral Fluorescence : UV long and short waves. Solubility : in various acids, and aqueous solutions. P seudomorphosis : often quartz. Use : mainly in metallurgy and chemical industries. Gitology : formation at low temperature.Last year, while traveling in Arizona, I visited an old copper mining town called Jerome, a small flowerbed of a community clinging to the edge of a red-burnished hillside. While there I drifted irresistibly into a rock and mineral store.

The store was an Aladdin's cave of gleaming stones and metals. I bought my son a gold-banded slice of petrified wood and myself a handful of rough blue-green crystals, which the store owner promised would help me channel positive energy. I've yet to test that theory, actually; I just use them pictured above as home decoration.

But the reason that I'm mentioning them is not because they're pretty but because they are naturally occurring fluorite crystals. Or if you want to know their precise chemical makeup, they are made of calcium fluoride CaF2.

And the reason I'm mentioning that is the appearance of a kind of weird mythology among people who oppose fluoridation of water -that it's all about introducing an unnatural industrial chemical into our water supplies.

As you may know, this week the city of Portland rejected a measure that would have introduced fluoridated drinking water there, a process already available in many other cities as a means of protecting dental health. The organization that ran the successful campaign against the measure, Clean Water Portland, was quoted in Slate as follows: "Industrial byproducts don't belong in our drinking water. And this "anti-chemical" approach worked well for them.

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A USA Today story on the failed measure quoted one voter as saying simply, "I don't want chemicals in my water. Picture me at this moment grabbing up those fluorite crystals in search of a positive energy that would help me find a polite answer to that statement rather than a sarcastic rejoinder that water is, in fact, nothing but chemicals.

That it even has its very own chemical formula of H2O. That such formula tells us that, at a minimum, when we drink water were are drinking the naturally occurring chemicals hydrogen and oxygen. No, I'm afraid my crystals are just not going to help me here.

And Julia Skiff at The Washington Post published a terrific piece reminding us that most communities in the United States are, by contrast, paying attention to the evidence at hand. There are many more such reports and - although you've probably guessed that I share their perspective - I'm not going to simply repeat that message here.

Rather I want to take a moment to further discuss - or perhaps I mean debunk - the notion that anti-fluoride groups are heroically battling some evil industrial compound. Because what they are really battling is compounds that derive from the naturally occurring element fluorine F. In its pure form this is a highly reactive gas, isolated inwith a name derived from the Latin word for "flow.

It's because fluorine is so reactive, because it is so "eager" to bond with other chemicals, that we find it in many variations in our natural world, such as the fluorite crystals that I brought home from Arizona which once went by the more evocative name of Bohemian emeralds.

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